Causes of infertility in men

Infertility is the absence of pregnancy for 1 year or more with a permanent sexual partner of a man with a regular sexual life, not using contraception. Infertility can occur when both sexual partners have reduced fertility. Reproductivity refers to the ability to conceive. Infertility in men, which is caused by a disease of the genital system, leads to impaired genital and copulatory function. There are various possible causes of infertility in men.

Congenital and acquired abnormalities of the urinary and genital systems.

Infections and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.

Endocrine disorders.

Genetic and immunological disorders.

Dilation of the seminal vein (varicocele).

Statistically, 15 percent of sexually active couples do not achieve pregnancy during this period to the doctor, and 5 percent of couples remain infertile, despite treatment.

In 30 percent of cases, infertility is caused by the man, in 35 percent – the pathology of the woman, the disease explained by both partners in 15 percent of cases of infertility. In the remaining cases, the cause of infertility cannot be clarified.

In such patients, if there is no indication of the disease that could cause infertility, with normal results of general examination endocrinological examination in the semen analysis (spermogram) reveals a decrease in sperm count (oligospermia), their motility (astenozoospermia), the presence of various abnormalities of sperm structure (teratozoospermia). Often the above abnormalities in the spermogram are combined; such combined disorders are called OAT syndrome (oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratospermia). The complete absence of spermatozoa in the seminal fluid is called azoospermia.

Idiopathic infertility in men can be due to the action of several factors, including chronic stress, the effects of environmental disorders, genetic disorders. The main adverse factors are divided into three groups: physical, chemical, domestic.

Physical factors

Of the physical factors affecting spermatogenesis, the greatest effect has temperature, irradiation and vibration. Increased body temperature (due to the action of industrial factors, fevers, frequent use of hot baths, visits to the sauna. Spermatogenesis is also affected by diseases such as varicocele and cryptorchidism, in which an increased testicular temperature is one of the damaging factors. Even moderate local testicular overheating due to wearing tight-fitting clothing can cause damaging effects on spermatogenesis.

A well-known factor violating spermatogenic function – irradiation, the effect of which depends on the total dose, multiplicity, duration of exposure, the age of the man.

Another physical factor – vibration, which is included in the number of occupational hazards of certain occupations (drivers, mechanics, miners, etc.).

Chemical factors

Substances with the specified effect include natural estrogens of plant origin (phytoestrogens, for example in beer), getting into the body with food. So a negative role on spermatogenesis have a variety of chemical compounds, salts, heavy metals, pesticides and insecticides, fungicides (DDT), drugs (sedatives and antidepressants, some antibiotics and all sulfonamides, diuretics, hypolipidemics, hormones, anti-ulcer drugs, hypotensive, chemotherapy drugs for tumors.

Household factors

The influence of domestic factors is associated with individual lifestyle characteristics that systematically have a depressing effect on spermatogenesis.

These are:

Systematic consumption of alcohol;

Smoking;

The use of narcotic substances (especially cannabis and opiates);

Frequent stressful situations;

Diseases caused by impaired production or transport of spermatozoa from the testicles to the ejaculate.

Every man if a couple is not using birth control and his regular partner has not been pregnant for a year or more should visit a urologist for an examination and spermogram.