Good nutrition – for a healthy lifestyle: rules for a balanced diet.
“You are what you eat” – about the meaning of this winged phrase of Hippocrates, as well as the direct impact of the quality of nutrition on health has not thought about unless you are completely indifferent to his way of life. Even the furious fans of fast food deep down realize that the diet would be good to change …
A healthy body has a healthy spirit: why is it important to follow healthy eating habits?
The human body receives almost all the necessary substances through food and water. The composition of food and its properties have a direct impact on health, physical development, ability to work, emotional well-being and, in general, on quality and life expectancy. It is difficult to find another factor that would have such a serious impact on the human body.
Just for the record
According to some scientists, physical health depends on lifestyle, which includes the nature of human nutrition. Heredity and the state of the environment account for 20% each, and only 10% – the level of medical support.
Nutrition is associated with all vital functions of the body. It is the source of development of tissues and cells, their constant renewal, and saturation with energy. Inappropriate nutrition, both excessive and insufficient, can cause significant harm to human health at any age. It manifests itself in a decline in the level of physical and mental development, rapid fatigue, inability to resist the impact of adverse environmental factors, reduced work capacity and even premature aging and reduced life expectancy. By the way, every woman who looks after herself knows that her skin condition directly depends on the state of her digestive system, in particular her intestines, and therefore on healthy nutrition.
But what exactly is the right way to eat? On this account, there are many theories, and almost every day there are new ones. Some argue for a complete rejection of meat, some proclaim raw food a panacea for all diseases and troubles, and some develop combinations of products that supposedly allow the body to achieve full nutritional harmony. In fact, any restrictions on nutrition can hardly be considered useful or acceptable to all. The human body is a very complex system and requires both meat and plant food for normal functioning. Lack of nutrients contained in the same meat, such as high bioavailability iron, can cause serious health problems. Good nutrition is not about controlling calories and strict diets, but about providing the body with a complete diet that includes all the products it needs: meat, cereals, vegetables and fruits. The selection of a diet is one of the main tasks in a proper diet, but it is equally important to follow it every day. If you stick to the basic rules of a healthy diet, not from time to time, and constantly, you do not have to take care of excess weight, reduced immunity, problems with hair, skin and health in general.
The principles of healthy eating: everyone should know it!
Where do you want to start? First of all, with the firm decision to eat right. Here are a few simple rules that almost all modern diets rely on to help you quickly learn the principles of healthy eating.
Rule No. 1. Forget about fast food forever and try not to abuse the sweet.
Rule No. 2. Eat as many seasonal foods as possible – they contain maximum nutrients. Winter fruits and vegetables grown in greenhouses or brought from far away, due to the processing of chemicals and long-term storage not only lose all their benefits, but also become accumulators of nitrates and other harmful chemical compounds.
Rule No. 3. Limit the use of refined products to the maximum extent possible: sugar, vegetable oil, white wheat flour and refined white rice. They do not contain fibre, which is very important for the digestive tract and for feeding the beneficial bacteria that live in the intestines. That is why it is much better to eat wholemeal bread instead of white bread, and to replace refined sugar with brown sugar or even honey.
Rule No. 4. Drink the water. Tea, coffee and juices are not substituting for water. The body should receive at least 30-35 ml of liquid per 1 kg of weight per day. Sweet sodas – completely prohibited, they contain too much sugar.
Rule No. 5. Do not forget about protein food. It is able to give a feeling of satiety for a long time and is also rich in amino acids. Proteins are essential to the body to build muscle tissue, replace outdated cells. Protein-rich foods include various types of meat, fish, squid, shrimp, nuts, mushrooms, some beans, eggs, cottage cheese.
Rule No. 1. Use several types of vegetable oils for cooking. This is the best source of fatty acids the body needs. It is very good if you have several bottles of different oils in your kitchen all the time: olive, sesame, linseed, walnut and pine nut oil. Remember that unrefined oils are not suitable for heat treatment.
Rule number 2. Cook properly. All useful substances can be stored in products with minimal heat treatment. It is recommended that pasta or cereal be cooked for only a few minutes. By the way, classic Italian pasta should always be a little undercooked and filled with vegetable oil. Meat and fish products must always be heat treated, as they may contain parasites. However, frying in oil is best avoided, the best methods are cooking, baking in the oven and steaming.
Rule No. 3. Use natural and fresh food for cooking. Any semi-finished or long stored product with preservatives, flavour enhancers and dyes increases the load on the body, prevents the excretion of toxins, slows down metabolism. A piece of chicken baked in the oven, many times more useful than the most high-quality and expensive sausage from the store.
Rule No. 1. Be sure to observe the power condition. Rare meals are as harmful as constant snacks and the habit of eating something all the time. A healthy person eats optimally 4-5 times a day, the interval between meals of more than 5 hours slows down metabolism and makes the body switch to a saving mode. As a result, fat deposits begin to accumulate. Try not to eat a snack at the workplace or at the TV. In this case, the process of eating becomes uncontrollable, it is not saturation, but overeating.
Rule No. 2. Eat some fresh fruits and vegetables every day. The recommended amount is 300 g of both. This way you will get all the necessary vitamins and fiber. It is very convenient to bring a pre-cut apple or pear, cucumber or carrot sticks to work.
Of course, it is very difficult to change your habits immediately and completely and to refuse a delicious cake with a cup of strong coffee. It can take a lot of willpower and lead to stress. So occasionally you can afford both a sausage sandwich and a cake. The important thing is not to make it a daily food.
Recommended foods: delicious and healthy
All foods eaten by humans can be roughly divided into “healthy” and “harmful”. Useful foods should be included every day: they are rich in amino acids, vitamins, micro and macro elements, fatty acids, fiber. At the same time, they are easily digested, do not slow down the metabolism and do not have a harmful effect on health. Such products traditionally include the following:
Fresh berries, fruits and vegetables (vitamin C, fibre).
Cereals and porridges made from them (vitamins B, E, magnesium, potassium, folic acid).
Dried fruits and nuts (vitamins, fatty acids, protein).
Poultry meat (protein, amino acids, vitamins A, B, E).
Fish and seafood (protein, polyunsaturated acids, vitamins D, E, B12, calcium, phosphorus).
Dairy products: sour cream, cottage cheese, yogurt (calcium, protein, amino acids, vitamins D, A, B12, carbohydrates).
Green tea (vitamins, minerals, polyphenols).
Vegetable oils obtained by cold pressing (phospholipids, linoleic and other polyunsaturated acids, vitamins A, D, E).
Honey (vitamins, trace elements, glucose, fructose, phytoncides, fast carbohydrates).
Grain bread (fibre, enzymes, amino acids).
Consumption of these products in the right combination is what is called a healthy diet, because they bring the body a clear benefit and are able to not only maintain health, but also strengthen it. Nutritionists recommend, for example, eating cereals on water in combination with vegetable salads dressed with olive oil. By the way, the combination of cucumbers and tomatoes in the salad is not recommended – sliced cucumbers emit a special enzyme that destroys the vitamin C contained in the tomatoes. Cabbage, asparagus, zucchini, radish, and cucumbers are suitable for meat, fish and poultry. It is better to eat the fruit separately, before a meal or about an hour after.
Recommended products: Unwanted ballast
But when eating healthy foods, one should not forget about the exclusion from the diet of “harmful” products – those that cause the accumulation of fat in the body and metabolic disorders:
Chips, popcorn, breadcrumbs, pickled nuts.
Any semi-finished products and concentrates: dry mashed potatoes, instant noodles, etc.
Handy baked goods, especially those with a high sugar content.
Ready-made factory sauces, including mayonnaise.
Smoked meats, sausages.
Juices (except freshly squeezed), carbonated drinks.
Unwanted and consumption of sugar and salt. If you can’t refuse them at all, then instead of sugar you can use honey, and salt to a minimum, just a little bit of salting dishes. Recently, popular have become sea and pink Himalayan salt, containing less sodium chloride and more nutrients.
Diet calorie and BRU balance
A healthy diet programme cannot be developed without determining the caloric value of the diet and calculating the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (BFU balance). A properly selected diet allows you not to experience feelings of hunger and weakness, to provide the body with sufficient nutrients, keep your weight at the right level and feel great.
In order to calculate the calorie content of a diet, you need to know the acceptable rate and optimal daily calorie intake, as well as take into account your lifestyle: the calorie content of food during active sports activities should be higher than during sitting in the office and the same rest at home in front of the TV.
The average daily calorie rate for men is, depending on age and lifestyle, 2000-2400 kcal, for women – 1800-2400 kcal. The balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the norm should be as follows:
proteins – 30-40%;
Just for the record
There are several formulas that can be used to calculate individual calorie requirements. For example, the WHO formula is based on body area, while the Ketch-Macardle formula is based on the percentage of body fat.
Knowing your own values and using the calorie table, it is very easy to make an approximate menu for the week in which all the products your body needs will be presented.
Power Mode: regularity – all head
With proper nutrition, the meal times must be accurately calculated, since only the timely intake of nutrients can compensate for energy costs. For a healthy person, a four meal regime is the most rational. It ensures that the digestive system is evenly loaded and the food is better digested and digested.
With two meals a day, with intervals between meals of up to 7 hours and more, increases blood cholesterol levels, accumulates fat deposits, reduces the intensity of the thyroid gland. In addition, after a long period of time a person can immediately eat a lot of food, overflowing the stomach and reducing the mobility of its walls. Sprained stomach not only adversely affects the quality of digestion of food, but also raises the diaphragm, preventing normal heart activity. Long breaks cause the secretion of large amounts of gastric juice and irritation of the mucous stomach. Too short breaks between meals are also undesirable. There is not enough time for a complete digestive process in this case, which may lead to a disturbance of the digestive tract.
A very important factor in a healthy eating system is the regularity of meals. A person at a certain time there is a feeling of hunger, which triggers the release of gastric juice needed to digest food. In case of eating disorders, this reflex in a person dies out. Food enters the stomach, which is not yet ready for the digestive process. As a result, appetite is reduced, and all food entering the body is very poorly absorbed, which causes gastritis, cholecystitis and other diseases.
As practice shows, in order for a person to get used to the chosen diet, two or three days is enough.
Example menu per day: following the principles of healthy eating habits
A healthy diet is not only healthy, but also delicious. Let’s prove it with the example of a one-day menu that is designed with calorie food and balance in mind.
Breakfast: eggs with mushrooms of one whole egg and two proteins, a piece of wholemeal bread, chicory with cream – 384 kcal, 25 g of proteins, 19 g of fats and 26 g of carbohydrates.
Snack: one banana and a quarter bar of black chocolate – 220 kcal, 4 g proteins, 12 g fats, 28 g carbohydrates.
Lunch: vegetable salad and broccoli cabbage puree soup with chicken and cream – 327 kcal, 30 g protein, 14 g fat, 21 g carbohydrates.
Midday: two mandarins and an apple – 174 kcal, 40 g of carbohydrates, vitamin C.
Dinner: cod baked with stewed vegetables – 288 kcal, 32 g protein, 5 g fat, 3 g carbohydrates.
Overnight: a glass of kefir – 76 kcal, 6 g protein, 2 g fat and 8 g carbohydrates.
With this menu, the total calorie intake for the day will be 1470 kcal, protein – 98 g, fat – 53 g, carbohydrates – 153 g. In addition, the products included in the dishes have all the necessary vitamins and trace elements.
How to instill healthy eating habits?
According to experts, any habit can be formed in 21 days. The same statement applies to healthy eating habits. These habits are not difficult to instill, you just need to set a clear goal and not to deviate from it. Take a note of some useful tips:
Ask yourself why I want to change my eating habits. The answer must be as specific as possible and the ultimate goal must be attainable. For example, to lose three kilos, improve complexion, get rid of heartburn, etc.
Keep an eating diary – it helps to correct eating errors in the period when new habits are not yet established. Today it’s very easy to do: in almost any mobile application store you can find special programs, both paid and free. By installing them on your smartphone, you will be able to control your diet. When there is a need to eat exclusively healthy food and drink enough water, you will not need a diary.
Take your time. Sharp and complete replacement of usual “harmful” dishes with new and healthy ones in almost 100% of cases leads to disruption. The diet should be changed gradually, gradually introducing useful food.
Renounce severe restrictions. Do not force yourself not to eat after 18.00, completely exclude desserts. All these prohibitions lead to stress and rejection of attempts to change habits for the better. For dinner you can choose simple and easily digestible food: vegetables, fruit, cottage cheese, chicken eggs, lean fish, white chicken meat. And sweets are better to eat in the morning and in small quantities.
The diet has to be varied. Healthy food doesn’t have to be fresh and tasteless at all. There are many gourmet dishes, which are unusually useful to the body.
Stop eating outside the house. Before eating habits change, do not go to cafes and restaurants, there are too many temptations. Preference should be given to homemade food.
Go to the store only on a full stomach. This way you’ll have less chance to buy something harmful in a bright, seductive package.
Put a water and food reminder on your phone and it will make it easier for you to stick to your diet.
Find like-minded people – it’s always easier to change things in the company. It’s good to be supported by your loved ones: family dinners don’t turn into a test of resilience.
Don’t pay any attention to external attacks, just learn to find worthy answers to comments about your new food preferences. And learn how to refuse a meal. Especially when it comes to joint office tea parties with candy and cookies.
In fact, changing your eating habits isn’t so hard. The small temporary inconveniences caused by this can hardly outweigh the benefits to the body, which can give a person the right food.
How to improve the benefits of following healthy eating habits
Good nutrition has been a trend lately, and more and more people are following it. Together with regular exercise, quitting smoking and developing a positive outlook, it is becoming a new lifestyle. But even by following its principles, we cannot fully protect ourselves from harmful factors. One way or another, we buy all products on the market or in a store without knowing how they are made. Even the freshest farm vegetables can contain nitrates and pesticides. In addition, it is not uncommon for unscrupulous producers, in pursuit of profits for organic products, to issue those that contain preservatives, heavy metals and other elements harmful to health. Tap water that comes into our homes is also not very useful. Many filters are unable to completely clean it from harmful impurities.
Even with breathable air, especially in cities, our body gets a portion of toxic substances contained in car exhaust and industrial emissions.
Therefore, purification of the body is necessary even for those who lead healthy lifestyles. And a very important role in this can play special drugs that have sorbents in their composition. Such means bind and remove toxins and allergens from the body, normalizing digestion.
For example, the drug “Lactofiltrum” has a dual effect: it eliminates the body of allergens, toxins and harmful bacteria due to the content of natural sorbent – lignin, and normalizes microflora through the second component – lactulose, which promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria. “Lactofiltrum” is an excellent element of any detox program. It is a reliable alternative to folk means of purification, which is not always easy to prepare and sometimes unsafe to use. For example, regular intake of ordinary activated carbon can cause damage to the stomach and intestine walls, and “Lactofiltrum” is designed for gentle cleansing of the stomach and is fully ready to receive.