The human body needs a certain set of nutrients every day. The best way to get them is from food, not from synthetic drugs. To do this, it is important to have a well-balanced diet.
A food ration is the daily amount of food for one person. The composition of the daily ration is determined by age, gender, work activity, climatic conditions, existing diseases. However, regardless of social or physiological classification, the body needs such components of food as water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
Water makes up the bulk of a person’s body weight, so maintaining a water balance is essential. Each day an adult should consume from 1.5 to 3 liters of water.
Protein is of great importance for human health. They are involved in building and renewing tissues, making hormones and enzymes (enzymes), and transporting blood through blood vessels and veins. Proteins are also important for the nervous system. In case of their acute shortage, the body begins to use protein of muscles, skeletal muscles, internal organs with the consequent development of their dystrophy, reduced immunity, increased cancer risk, activation of foci of infection.
One of the main suppliers of energy to the body is carbohydrates. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. Preference should be given to the latter, because they are digested more slowly and do not cause a spike in blood sugar, unlike the former. Deficiency of carbohydrates in the body provokes metabolic disorders, the lack of energy begins to compensate at the expense of proteins and fats, which leads to increased pressure on the kidneys, disorders of salt metabolism.
In saturating the body with energy fats are also involved. They contribute to the absorption of many vitamins, and help fully synthesize human sex hormones. When we eat insufficient amounts of fats, the central nervous system malfunctions, the body’s immune system weakens, eyesight suffers. Without them, there is depletion of the body, the skin becomes dry and wrinkles appear.
All the components – proteins, carbohydrates, fats – should be present in the food consumed by man during the day. Specialists of the Department of Rospotrebnadzor in the Republic of Mari El point out that with a balanced diet it is important to provide a variety of foodstuffs, that is, dishes at different meals should not be repeated. It gives the possibility to compensate the nutrients that are not included in one meal and satisfy the daily requirement of the body in each of the nutrients.
In observing the norms of good nutrition an important role is given not only to its composition, but also to the mode of food intake. The world community of nutritionists recommend eating at least four times a day. Such a regimen ensures the effective functioning of the digestive organs, the normalization of metabolism and metabolic acceleration.
In the absence of opportunities for fractional and frequent meals need to eat three meals a day. At the same time the breaks between meals should be no more than 5-6 hours. Each subsequent meal should be reduced, that is, the distribution of the daily ration should be during breakfast 35-40%, lunch – 30-35%, dinner – 25-30%.
The daily quota of fats is best consumed in the first half, also in the morning you can take a limited amount of simple carbohydrates. In lunch, you should give preference to proteins, for greater assimilation of which it is important to combine them with complex carbohydrates. At the end of the day, the amount of carbohydrates should be minimized, so a protein-rich, lean food is best for dinner.
Studies show that people who do not exceed their daily caloric intake, but eat it in one meal, still gain weight, while the same amount of food eaten in 4-6 meals does not lead to weight gain, and sometimes even the opposite, contributes to weight loss.